nextfile maclabs:1.1 Lab Intro
The First Bug
It was the summer of 1945. The US Navy was rushing to finish Mark II,one of the first American large-scale digital computers.
"It was a hot summer with no air conditioning, so all the windows were open,"wrote then Navy Captain Grace Hopper in the Annals of the History of Computing."Mark II stopped, and we were trying to get her going. We finally found therelay that had failed. Inside the relay -- and these were large relays -- wasa moth that had been beaten to death by the relay. We got a pair of tweezers.Very carefully we took the moth out of the relay, put it in the logbook, andput scotch tape over it.
"Now, Commander Howard Aiken had a habit of coming into the room and saying'Are you making any numbers?' From then on if we weren't making any numbers,we told him that we were debugging the computer. To the best of my knowledgethat's where it started."
This logbook page, with the first computer bug still taped to it, is at theNaval Museum at the Naval Surface Weapons Center in Dahlgren, Virginia,USA.
- Annals of the History of Computing
The Department of Computer Science maintains its own computers but also makesuse of facilities provided by the University's Computing Services Department.
Computing Services maintains and operates the high-speed network, Develswitchterminal handlers, and the mainframe computers called Max and Meena. Refer tothe Computing Services User's Guide for detailed information regarding theirservices and facilities.
Classroom 115 - This is a Computer Science Department Laboratory. It isopen 24 hours a day, 7 days a week EXCEPT during scheduled lab periods. Checkthe door for changes to these hours.
Classroom 135 - This is a Computer Science Department Laboratory. It is open 24hours a day, 7 days a week EXCEPT during scheduled lab periods.
Computing Services Department Labs:
Education 208.4 - located in the Education Library. Open libraryhours.
Education 440.1 - open 24 hours a day EXCEPT during scheduled labperiods.
a) Check the schedule on the lab door before entering to be surethe lab is not in use. You MAY NOT attend lab sections in which you are notregistered.
b) Eating, drinking, smoking, and game playing are ABSOLUTELYPROHIBITED in all
terminal rooms. Please leave food, drinks, and smoking materials outside ofthe lab area.
c) Radios, tape players, etc. are allowed in the labs ONLY when usedwith headphones so as not to disturb other people working in the lab.
d) Keep the lab tidy. Throw all scrap listings and other waste into thegarbage cans provided before leaving the lab. Paper recycling bins are providedfor all white, non-glossy paper. Staples do not have do be removed. Do notdispose of candy wrappers in the recycling bins.
e) Telephones are provided in some labs for technicians and labinstructors. They are NOT for student use.
f) Do not touch thermostat or humidity controls in the labs.
g) You are not allowed to play games on terminals or microcomputers.
h) In the event of a fire, remember SAFETY FIRST. If you feel you cancontrol the fire there are extinguishers located by the entrances of all labs.If you are not sure that you can control the fire, leave immediately and pushthe red emergency stop button located at lab exits. In either case contactsomeone of authority (lab instructor, technician, etc.)
i) Computer paper for line printers is available in all of the labs. Ifany lab runs out of paper more is available in Classroom 135 or Classroom C115.Paper for laser printers must be provided by students; use only good qualitybond paper.
b) Should you discover any piece of equipment that needs repair:
* turn off the equipment.
* put an "OUT OF ORDER" sign on the equipment stating what is wrong.
Computer accounts are given to students for undergraduate and graduate work.Account information (userid and password) must be treated as you would treat acredit card. If you allow another person to use your account, you, notthe other person, are responsible for misuse or abuse of the account. TheUniversity owns the account and has the right to govern its use. Disciplinaryaction for misuse of an account includes temporary or permanent loss of theaccount.
Logon time in a computer account is not restricted in any way. You may logonany time you wish and stayed logged on as long as you wish. Access to youraccount is also not restricted. You may logon from any of the Universityfacilities or from home or your office via modem.
Undergraduates do not need to apply for main frame (Max or Meena)accounts. Computer Science laboratory instructors make arrangements with theComputing Services Department to have accounts generated from Registrar'sinformation. You are not issued a new mainframe account each semester. A Max orMeena account remains yours to use until you fail to register for twoconsecutive semesters at the University. Please consult any Computer Sciencelab instructor concerning individual problems with an account; for example, youmay not be sure of your userid or password after returning from a coop workterm away from the University. Be prepared to present your student ID card whenyou request account information from a lab instructor.
Graduate students can apply directly to Computing Services for main framecomputer accounts. They may require the signature of a supervisor to authorizetheir requests.
The amount of disk space for a Max account is determined by the size of a"mini-disk", the storage allocation unit under the CMS operating system. Forundergraduate accounts a mini-disk is defined to be 459 blocks of 1024 byteblocks. Cobol students are allocated an extra mini-disk of double the normalsize. This extra mini-disk is in effect only for the semester that the studentis taking Cobol. It is the responsibility of all students to make backup copiesof their own files. Files in the standard mini-disk are not deleted atthe end of a semester.
The amount of disk space for a Meena account depends on what classes are beingtaken. Enter the "show quota" command to determine the current disk spaceallocation. Files in Meena undergraduate account are deleted at the end of eachsemester. It is the responsibility of all students to make backup copies oftheir own files.
Accounts for classes running on Computer Science machines are generatedautomatically at the beginning of each semester. Accounts on Herciles accountremains yours to use until you fail to register for two consecutive semestersat the University.. Restrictions on disk space are specified on the accountsheets handed out at the beginning of the semester. It is the responsibility ofall students to make backup copies of their own files.
b) Do not allow anyone to modify your account in any way you do notunderstand as you are responsible for repairing any resulting damage.
c) You are responsible for anything that originates from your account.DO NOT LEAVE YOUR TERMINAL WITHOUT LOGGING OFF.
d) Obscenities and electronic chain letters will not be tolerated. Suchabuse will result in the immediate loss of computer privileges.
e) The operating system and related system software is not to betampered with.
f) Taking files without authorization is considered theft and will bereported to the proper authorities.
Computer laboratories are located on the first floor of the Classroom Building.Labs may be booked for scheduled lab periods. Please check the schedules postedon lab doors before entering.
All terminals and most microcomputers in Computer Science laboratories areconnected by the network maintained by the Computing Services Department.
To connect to a computer through the switch from a terminal, simply typethe [return] key once or twice until a prompt appears asking you to enter thename of the computer you are requesting. Then follow instructions on the screenand logon as you would normally. The following scenario illustrates a logon tothe mainframe computer Meena.
Press RETURN to continue
U of R Computing Services
VMS Meena at your service
To connect to a computer through the switch from a microcomputer, you mustfirst use one of the communications packages available to make the microemulate a terminal. Packages available are: Kermit, Yterm, and thecommunications component of Microsoft Works. For a complete description of theuse of these packages, refer to the relevant section in the "Desktop Computers"chapter of the Computing Services Users' Manual. On many micros, it issufficient to enter:
CL135 East is booked each semester for second year computer scienceclass labs and also for ad hoc bookings by some other departments. The lab isavailable at any time outside of scheduled periods. Files can be sent to theadjacent printer room at any time.
CL135 West is not a booked area. You may use it at any time.
C135 is open 24 hours a day, all 7 days of the week. It is closed during theChristmas break.
There are approximately 40 VT100 and VT220 type terminals in the lab. Allterminals are connected to the Develswitch.
There is a group of microcomputers in the C135 West. These machines are allconnected to a mechanical switch box which is in turn connected to a laserprinter. Observe the labels on the machines and select the corresponding labelon the switch box when you wish to use the laser printer. Users must providetheir own paper for the laser printer. There is a minimal charge for each pagelaser-printed. A "Cop-Eze" card is used as a means of paying for laser output.Cop-Eze cards can be obtained in the Main Library. These are the same cardsthat are used for copying machines in the University's Main Library.
In the CL135 printer room you will find a line printer connected to Meena,which handles print requests from Max and the Department of Computer Science'sUnix systems, Mercury and Hercules. The following table describes the commandsneeded to send files to the CL135 Genicom printer.
Machine Genicom Print Command
Meena C135LP filename.filetype X(Return)
MaxC135LP filename filetype X(Return)
Mercury lpr-Pc135lp filename X(Return)
Hercules " " " "
There are smaller printers that are connected to Meena, Max, and Mercury. Thecommands to send files to these printers are shown in the following table.
Machine Smaller Printer Commands
Meena C135 filename.filetype X(Return)
Max C135filename filetype X(Return)
Mercury lpr -Pc135filename X(Return)
Hercules " " "
CL135.2 is booked each semester for third and fourth year computer scienceclass labs.
CL135.2 is available to authorized users at any time except during reservedperiods; check the schedule on the door. Entrance to the lab is regulated by acombination lock. Authorized users are informed of the combination to the room;the combination is changed each week. CL135.2 is closed during the Christmasbreak.
CL135.2 contains a group of Packard Bell 386SX microcomputers. All PackardBell's have VGA monitors, 4 meg of memory, and Microsoft mice. They have beenconnected to the campus network and can be used to access other computers onthe network by entering:
telnet machine_name [return]
CL105 contains a group of Macintosh computers. All Macintoshes are connected toan Appleshare network. Connection can be made to a Macintosh file server whichcontains a variety of software such as Superpaint, Hypercard, and so on. Referto the Macintosh Computers chapter of this manual for more details.
CL105 is available to authorized users at any time except during reservedperiods; check the schedule on the door. Entrance to the lab is regulated by acombination lock. Authorized users are informed of the combination to the room;the combination is changed each week. CL105 is closed during the Christmasbreak.
A group of Macintosh SE computers in the lab are all networked together. Accessto file servers and mainframes (through NCSA telnet) is available. Refer to theMacintosh Computers chapter of this manual for more details. An Apple Scanner,for digitizing images, and a MacRecorder, for digitizing sound, are connectedto one of the hard-disk Macintoshes. Another Macintosh is connected to anImageWriter printer. The laser printer in the lab is accessed through thenetwork. Users must provide their own paper for the laser printer. There is aminimal charge for each page laser-printed. A "Cop-Eze" card is used as a meansof paying for laser output. Cop-Eze cards can be obtained in the Main Library.These are the same cards that are used for copying machines in the University'sMain Library.
CL115 is primarily intended for use by CS100 students but it can be used bystudents or faculty members outside of scheduled labs.
CL115 is available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. The lab is closed duringthe Christmas break.
CL115 contains a group of microcomputers and a few printers. Micro's areconnected to a file server that sends files to the printer selected by theuser. Users must provide their own paper for the laser printer and thecut-sheet printer. There is a minimal charge for each page laser-printed. A"Cop-Eze" card is used as a means of paying for laser output. Cop-Eze cards canbe obtained in the Main Library. These are the same cards that are used forcopying machines in the University's Main Library.
A line printer is located in CL115. This is connected to Meena which handlesGenicom print requests from Max and the Department of Computer Science's Unixsystems, Mercury and Hercules. The following table describes the commandsneeded to send files to the CL115 line printer.
Machine Line Printer Command
Meena C115LP filename.filetype X(Return)
MaxC115LP filename filetype X(Return)
Mercury lpr-Pc115lp filename X(Return)
Hercules " " " "
There are two smaller printers in CL115 that are connected directly to Meenaand Max respectively. The commands to send files to these printers is shown inthe following table.
Machine Dedicated CL115 Printer Command
Meena C115 filename.filetype X(Return)
Max C115filename filetype[return]
CL122 is used for senior graduate, graduate, and faculty project work. Areas ofinterest include image processing, pattern recognition, and expert systems.Written requests for access to the room can be submitted to the Department Headin the Computer Science Office.
CL122 is available to authorized users at any time. Entrance to the lab isregulated by a combination lock. Authorized users are informed of thecombination to the room; the combination is changed each week.
Sun 4/65 Sparcstation I+ "Vision" Image processing research
Personal Iris 4D/20 "Saturn" Image processing research
Sun Sparcstation "Vlsi" Image processing; expert system research
Mac II with 4 node Transputer Parallel processing, imaging system"Typhoon"
Macintosh II "Texture" General purpose
Two IBM PC/AT's Image Capture
Hewlett Packard laser printer III Postscript output of images, text
CL124.1 is the Department's facility for digital graphics work. CL124.1 is usedby senior graduates, graduates, and faculty. Areas of interest include graphicsand animation. Written requests for access to the room can be submitted to theDepartment Head in the Computer Science Office.
CL124.1 is available to authorized users at any time. Entrance to the lab isregulated by a combination lock. Authorized users are informed of thecombination to the room; the combination is changed each week.
Iris 4D/60 graphics workstation "Zephyr" Plant development modelling; general graphics research
Two Iris 4D/20 graphics workstations Plant development modelling;"Venus" and "Vulcan" general graphics research
Iris 4D/25 graphics workstation Plant development modelling; "Eos" generalgraphics research
Iris 3130 graphics workstation General graphics research; "Iris" attached tofilm recorder
Iris Indigo graphics workstation General graphics research "Electra"
Sun 3/110 workstation "Icarus" Document processing
Microtek 300Z 300 dpi color Importing images for research scanner use
JVC BRS810U professional Taping of research results; single editingrecorder frame animation research
Silicon Graphics Thermal color Hardcopy color output of printer computergenerated images
b) Copying assignments is NOT acceptable. If you are caught copying youwill be awarded a grade of zero on the assignment. A second offence willresult in a recommendation to the Dean of Science that you be awarded a gradeof zero in the class. Any disciplinary action will be reported to the dean ofyour faculty as per University requirements.
c) Lab assignments are returned on the shelves in CL115 or CL135,depending on the class.
d) Marks are posted periodically outside CL115. Check the listing toverify your scores have been recorded correctly. If you find an error followthe instructions in point e) below.
e) If you have a complaint with the marking of your lab assignments:
* Attach a neat explanation of your complaint to the assignment and resubmit itwith your next assignment.
* If you are still not satisfied see your lab instructor.
a) Many of the rules for lab assignments also apply to classassignments.
* No late assignments are accepted. It pays to get assignments done early,because the labs can become very busy a few days before an assignment is due.
* Class information cover sheets are required when handing in an assignment.
* Class assignments are handed in as specified by the class instructor.
* If you have a complaint about the grading of a class assignment attach a neatexplanation of your complaint to the assignment and resubmit it with your nextassignment. If you are still not satisfied, see your class instructor.
b) You may use your home or office computer to do class assignment work,provided you adhere to certain guidelines, AND YOU OBTAIN PERMISSION FROM YOURINSTRUCTOR.
* You must include the name of the computer and the version of the spreadsheet,wordprocessor, or BASIC you used on the front of your assignment in big boldletters that the marker cannot miss. This applies to all classes, no matterwhat the programming language you use.
* For examinations you are responsible for knowing the versions of software andlanguages used on campus by your class.
* If the assignment requires the use of some feature of the software orlanguage that your office or home computer is lacking, you must then use thehardware provided on campus.
b) Consulting is also available in the evenings and on weekends fromconsultants in CL129.
c) When you come for consulting you MUST bring:
* a current listing of your program, spreadsheet, or file,
* a run of your program including any error messages which result,
* a copy of all input files used (where applicable).
If these items are not provided, you may be refused consulting.
Before requesting help on a programming problem, you are encouraged to entermany
PRINT statements in and around the areas of the program giving you problems.This will not only aid the consultant by generating useful information but mayeven provide you with the answer to the problem.
The report book is used in some Computer Science labs torecord procedures used and data taken. **** Your Lab Instructor will inform youif a report book is required. ****
Since information is recorded on the fly, the book is not expected to beimmaculate. It should however be neat and readable. The following apply toreport books:
* A standard graph note book should be used.
* Affix a neat label to the front cover of your report book. Print: your name,student number and lab section.
* The first page in the book is to be used as a table of contents.
* Every page in the book must be numbered at the start of the semester.
* Use only the right side of the book for your work. The left hand side can beused for scratch work.
* put a single line through mistakes or a box with a cross through it for largeareas.
* always start a lab on a new page. Put the date of the lab as well as the labnumber at the top of the first page.
* computer printouts should be taped into the report book. If you need to referto a figure give it a label (like figure 1).
* before you leave have your lab instructor initial the work you havecompleted in the lab. Without this initial you will receive zero for thelab.
All students are required to be on time for the beginning of each lab period.Any instructions or background material necessary will be given only once atthe beginning of the lab session and will not be repeated for late arrivals.
The following sections should appear in your report. The headingsfor object, procedure/results, and questions should be underlined and plainlyvisible.
Always start an experiment on a new page. Place the date and the labnumber at the top of the page.
Rewrite the object as specified in the experiment handout. It isimportant that you understand the purpose of the experiment.
It is not necessary to repeat the procedure from the handout.Supplementary procedures should be outlined here and any data taken orcalculations made. Make sure that you explain any testing procedures that youused and document the test data collected.
Most labs have questions at the end of the lab to test yourcomprehension of the lab material. Questions may be answered in paragraph orpoint form as long as you clearly answer the question.
The marks will generally be allotted as follows:
* 80% for procedure/results and questions
* 20% for grammar, spelling, neatness, clarity, and organization. This will begraded as follows:
* 0% - unacceptable
* 5% - poor
* 10% - satisfactory
* 15% - good
* 20% - very good.
The following will be deducted for errors:
25% Page numbers missing from report book
10% Date missing
5% Experiment number missing
10% Object missing
10% Report not starting on a new page
10% Left page used for report
5% Units missing
10% Name and lab section not on report book
5% Printouts not firmly taped in book
Computer accounts have been set up on some systems to allow students to accessfiles containing lab and class assignments, programming examples, and newsitems related to class material. Your lab or class instructor will direct youto the relevant account.
In order to access a Max news account, you must first establish a link andaccess to that account. The 'link' and 'access' commands are described fully inthe manual "Introduction to CMS". To connect to the CS271 news account youcould enter the following commands:
LINK CS271 191 271 (271 or any number you are not using from 193to 300)
ACCESS 271 H (H or any letter you are not using from Bto M)
To connect to the CS200 news account you could enter the following commands:
LINK CS200 191 200 (200 or any number you are not using from 193to 300)
ACCESS 200 I (I or any letter you are not using from Bto M)
After these commands have been entered you can see what files are available inthe news accounts by using the 'list' command and the drive letter you havejust associated with the news account.
e.g. LIST * * H look at filenames in the CS271 account
e.g. LIST * * I look at filenames in the CS200 account
To copy a file from a news account, use the 'copy' command, specifying theappropriate drive letter.
e.g. COPY filename filetype H = = A copy from the CS271account
e.g. COPY filename filetype I = = A copy from the CS200account
One news account has been set up to provide access for several classes. Tologon to this account, request connection to Meena, and then enter the username"NEWS". No password is required. After you logon you will see a list ofdirectories for different classes. Enter the name or number of the class youwish to access.
U of R Computing Services
VMS Meena at your service
WELCOME TO VMS 5.4-2 CLUSTER ON MEENA
On Wednesday 29-JUL-1992 at 10:59:40 !! Good morning !!
WELCOME TO THE U OF R
Choose a specific news account to get news from:
(type LO or BYE or EXIT when done)
CS102NEWS.DIR;1 CS203NEWS.DIR;1 CS270NEWS.DIR;1
Total of 5 files.
which account (? for a list): 270 [return]
Choose a file to type from the following:
(type ^ to return to main menu)
(type CTRL Y when done)
You can copy files into your account by using the copy
command and preceeding the file name with the path on
the directory listing below.
Total of 1 file.
What file (? for a list)
(^ for main menu)
At this point you could enter the name of a file. The news account would thendisplay the file on your terminal. You are then given the option of printingthe file.
Do you wish this file to be printed? y [return]
Available locations for printing:
Enter choice (1 or 2) ...
Where would you like the file printed? 1 [return]
Job OUTLINE (queue C135LPQ, entry 886) started on C135LPQ
What file (? for a list)
(^ for main menu)
To logoff the news account enter: BYE [return]
Some Computer Science labs use a program called "LSEND" which allows studentsto submit lab assignments electronically during their scheduledlaboratory period. You must be registered in a lab in order to useLsend. Rather than getting paper copy of programs, runs, and so on, you callthe Lsend program which will prompt you to enter filenames. Lsend can be calledto submit a file any number of times during a lab, but only the latestsubmission will be kept by LSEND.
Files can be submitted only during your scheduled lab period. All fileskept by Lsend will be printed off at the end of the week's labs. Markers willtake care of picking up the paper copies.
Usage on Meena:
To use the program, simply enter LSEND and follow instructions displayedon the screen. At the end, type [ [Ctrl] Z] to send the files.
Usage on Hercules:
To use the program, simply enter LSEND and follow instructions displayedon the screen. Type [return]to terminate your list of files.