4.5. Introduction to Macintosh


The following introduction is a summary of material contained in the Macintosh System Software User's Guide V6.0. MACINTOSH STARTUP SCREEN USING THE MOUSE

a) SELECT an item by moving the mouse so that the arrow on the screen points to the desired item, then CLICK the item (press the switch on the mouse). SELECT several scattered items by holding down the shift key while pointing and clicking. SELECT a group of items by pointing above and left of the 'first' item, then click and drag down and right, forming a rectangle over the desired group of items.

b) DRAG (move) an item by positioning the arrow on the item, then simultaneously hold down the mouse button and move the mouse.

c) DOUBLE CLICKING when the arrow is pointing to a disk or folder icon 'opens' the object. CHOOSING COMMANDS FROM A MENU

Use the mouse to point to the desired command. Hold the mouse button down and a sub-menu will be displayed. Commands that cannot be chosen at present are dimmed. Holding the mouse button down, move to the desired command. In some cases another menu is displayed; if so, continue moving the mouse until you are pointing at what you desire. Now release the mouse button to select the command OR move the pointer off the menu and release the mouse button (no command is selected in this case). WINDOWS

A window shows the contents of a disk or a folder (the equivalent of directories in other operating systems). Open a window by double clicking on an icon or by choosing Open from the File menu. Several windows can be open simultaneously, but only one (which will be highlighted) is "active". Click once anywhere in a window to make it active.

a) Changing the size of window:

i) Point to the Size Box, click and drag in any direction, or

ii) Point to the Zoom Box and click; repeat this to reduce the size.

b) Moving a window on the desktop:

Point to the Title Bar, click and drag.

c) Closing a window:

i) Point to the Close Box and click, or

ii) choose Close from the file menu.

d) Moving within a window:

A grey Scroll Bar indicates that there is more to be seen than currently appears in the window.

i) Click on a Scroll Arrow to move one 'unit'. Clicking and holding causes continuous movement.

ii) Click in the grey area of a Scroll Bar to move by the windowful.

iii) The Scroll Bar Box indicates the current relative position in the document or directory. Move the Box to change positions. STORING ITEMS

a) Choose SAVE or SAVE AS from the File menu. Save will store an item under an existing name, SAVE AS allows you to rename it. The document's name appears under its icon.

b) "Folders" are used to group items. Choose New Folder from the File menu and then type the name of the folder. Click and drag items into the folder.

Folders can be nested to about 12 levels. REMOVING ITEMS

a) Click and drag an item (or folder) to the Trash Can.

b) Choose Empty Trash from the Special menu.

The item is kept in the trash (on the disk) until either the trash is emptied of the machine is shut down. EDITING TEXT


a) Insert

Move the mouse to the desired location, click and type.

b) Select

Move to the desired location, then click and drag; selected text will be highlighted when the mouse button is released.

Selected text can then be 'cut' or 'copied'.

In either case, the text is placed in the Clipboard.

c) Move

To move text, Select it then choose Cut from the menu. Position the cursor at the desired location then click and choose Paste.

d) Copy

Select text and choose Copy from the menu.

Position cursor, click, and choose Paste.

e) Replace

Select text and type in desired replacement.

f) Delete

Select text and type Backspace (or Delete) key.

g) Contents of the Clipboard can be placed in the Scrapbook file by choosing Scrapbook from the Apple menu, and then choosing Paste from the Edit menu. Scrapbook files are stored in the System Folder. FINDER

Finder is the default start up application which manages the Mac desktop. Finder allows you to manipulate icons representing: disks, documents, folders, and applications.

Menu Item

Apple About the Finder shows version #, memory, etc.

Access Privileges view and set privileges

Alarm Clock

Calculator a set of Desk Accessories

Chooser. automatically installed in

Control Panel startup disks.


Use Font/DA Mover utility

to add or remove desk

accessories or to customize the System file.

File New Folder




Get Privileges

Get Info displays info and allows locking/

unlocking of an item


Put Away returns items to folders and disks.

Page Setup

Print Directory


Edit Undo




Select All

Show Clipboard

View by Icon

by Name

by Date

by Size

Special Cleanup to cleanup directory window or desktop,

hold down the Option Key before selecting

 Special and Cleanup

Empty Trash done automatically on 'shut down'.

Erase Disk erases and initializes selected disk.

Set Startup turns MultiFinder (a multitasking

OS) on/off.



These represent the hierarchical file system. They are used in applications and desk accessories.

a) Double click on an item in the directory list to move down the hierarchy.

b) To move up, click and hold on the directory title. The path up the hierarchy is illustrated as a pull down menu. DISKS

a) To initialize a 3.5" disk, simply put it in the drive and follow instructions. To reinitialize a disk, choose Erase Disk from the Special menu.

b) To eject a selected disk:

i) choose Eject from the File menu, or

ii) drag the disk icon to the Trash, or

iii) Type Command-Shift-1 for drive 1, (2 for drive 2), or

iv.) Choose Restore or Shutdown from Special menu

c) Startup Disk

A startup disk must have one (and only one) System Folder containing at least a System File and a Finder File. Initialize the disk you intend to become a startup disk, then:

i) Perform a cold boot with the "Macintosh Systems Tools" disk. Click on "install" and follow instructions.

ii) Select appropriate printing resources from the "Macintosh Printing Tools" disk. UTILITIES IN: MACINTOSH USER'S GUIDE V6.0

1. Apple HD SC Setup

- setup utility for SCSI disks

2. HD Backup

- backup program

3. Disk First Aid

- minor repairs to a damaged disk (lab instructor's have more advanced programs)

4. Font/DA Mover

- for adding/removing fonts and desk accessories to/from

a System file

5. Find File

- a desk accessory for locating files

6. Macro Maker

- allows a keystroke to be associated with several

keystrokes and/or commands

7. Apple File Exchange (AFE)

- file translation between Mac and Apple II G's or DOS

- requires Macintosh equipped with special SuperDrive

8. CloseView

- enlarges the screen image (a magnifying glass).


Many computer viruses exist which attack Macintosh applications. None of the known viruses are malicious but they may lead to system problems which cause loss of data. All system disks should have virus protection software installed. The Department currently uses the program Disinfectant which is available in the medicine folder on the file server disk. There is an excellent manual which is built into Disinfectant which explains the virus problem and the proper use of the program. Copies of this manual are available in the Consulting Office (CL129) or you can access the manual under the apple menu when the Disinfectant program is run.

Disinfectant only protects you from known viruses. A program called Gatekeeper is available in the Medicine folder on the file server which provides protection from possible future viruses. Gatekeeper monitors the Macintosh for unusual activity. When any such activity is found it is reported and you are asked whether the activity should be allowed. Properly answering these questions requires a good knowledge of the Macintosh; as a result most users will not use this program. However, if you have the knowledge to use it or you have critical data on your Macintosh, its use is recommended.


NCSA Telnet is a communications package which allows you to open telnet sessions over appletalk or ethernet to a suitable host. Unix hosts and Meena can be telnetted to directly. To telnet to Max requires the use of a TN3270 terminal emulator. On Mercury enter "tn3270 max" to connect. Its advantages over other terminal programs are its speed (over 9600), the ability to transfer files with FTP, and the ability to have many concurrent login sessions. NCSA Telnet and its documentation are available on the Macintosh file server. A printed version of the documentation is available in the Consulting Office (CL129).

The following scenario illustrates a simple logon to Mercury from a Macintosh using the Telnet program.

Step 1: Double click on the NCSA Telnet icon.

Step 2: Select "Open Connection" from the File menu.

Step 3: Enter the name of the computer you wish to connect to in the Connection dialog box.

Step 4: Logon as you normally do. When you have completed your session, you can select "Quit" from the Telnet File menu.


All Department computers are connected to either Appletalk or Ethernet and can therefore access network resources. File serving is provided by the Appleshare Chooser accessory. Appleshare allows you to access remote disks just as if they were local disks. A dedicated Macintosh file server is available with a variety of software on it. As well, your Unix account can be setup to allow a directory within it to be used as a remote Macintosh volume. For information on setting up your account, check the 'man' page on aufs. To log on to an appleshare volume:

1) Under the apple menu select the chooser accessory.

2) Select the appleshare icon. At this time you can also change zones. The Unix machines are on LocalTalk and the Macintosh Server is in the Phase2 Zone.

3) Select the server you would like to logon to and click OK.

4) Enter your username and password and click OK. Case is important and your password can be a maximum of 8 characters long. Use the X(TAB) key to move between fields.

5) If you would like to automate the logon process you can check the box beside the volume name and either select the option save name only or save name and password. Click OK. Be careful about saving your password. If you loose your floppy disk someone will be able to access your unix volume. As well the password is stored in plain text on the floppy disk where a knowledgeable person could read it. This would give them access to your whole Unix account.

6) You are now finished with the chooser and can close it by clicking in the close box. A disk icon should now appear on your desktop. OVERVIEW OF THE MACINTOSH FILE SERVER SOFTWARE

The contents of the Macintosh file server can be viewed by connecting as a 'guest' as described previously. Some of the available facilities are: Word, in the Word Processing folder; the spreadsheet Excel, in the Excel folder; drawing programs such as SuperPaint, in the Graphics folder; the hypermedia program Hypercard; and a desktop publishing program called Pagemaker.


To obtain laser printout from a Macintosh:

1) Select the printer you would like to print to by selecting the Laserwriter icon in the chooser and the desired printer. After the selection close the chooser window.

2) In the application check the Page Setup (in File menu) to make sure the settings are suitable.

3) If you are printing to a laserprinter with a Cop-Eze moneycard attached, insert your moneycard.

4) Choose Print ... from the File menu of your application and press OK.