List of Previous Directed Reading Courses

CS 890AA Advanced Database Systems (1-3:3-3)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. This course focuses on advanced database systems from theory to implementation.

CS 890AB Intelligent Scheduling (1-3:3-0)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. *** Note: The student and the supervisor must present a detailed outline of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration. ***

CS 890AC Data Analysis from the Internet (3:0-3)
Data Analysis from the Internet: Language, indexing and classification; extracting and abstracting by computer; stylistic analysis, statistical models and the entropy of English; hidden Markov models; probabilistic context-free grammars; data analysis via data mining and rule induction; ELEM2.

CS 890AD DSP for Multimedia (3:0-3)
Digital Signal Processing for Multimedia: Introduction to Digital Signal Processors (DSP), video signal processors, algorithms for multimedia applications, design and implementation of efficient algorithms, DSP applications to multimedia.

CS 890AE Persistent Software Agents (3:0-3)
Agent-based computing, interprocess communication, clustering algorithms, incremental algorithms, persistent computing.

CS 890AF Topics in DS and GA (3:0-3)
Topics in Dynamic Simulation and Graphical Animation: Basic animations based on key-frame interpolations, physically- based graphical animations, approximation techniques for elastic objects.

CS 890AG Natural Language Processing (3:0-3)
Grammars, semantics of language, NLP systems, existing systems.

CS 890AH Plns, Trns & Autonomous Mobile (3:3-0)
To provide the student with an opportunity to explore the theory and application of Artificial Intelligence techniques to the control of real world mobile vehicles using Lego Mindstorms' Robots and/or a computer controlled model railroad. The focus of the course will be on AI Techniques such as planning, scheduling, constraint satisfaction problem-solving, and search methods.

CS 890AI Parallel & Distributed Process (3:3-0)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. *** Note: The student and the supervisor must present a detailed outline of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration. ***

CS 890AN Ontology Studies (3:3-0)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. *** Note: The student and the supervisor must present a detailed outline of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration. ***

CS 890AO Fundamentals of Rough Set (3:3-0)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. *** Note: The student and the supervisor must present a detailed outlining of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration. ***

CS 890AP Rough Mereology for Inds Des (3:3-0)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. *** Note: The student and the supervisor must present a detailed outline of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration. ***

CS 890AQ Mgmt Intelligent Info System (3:0-0)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. *** Note: The student and the supervisor must present a detailed outline of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration. ***

CS 890AR Instructional Design for CS (3:3-0)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. *** Note: The student and the supervisor must present a detailed outline of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration. ***

CS 890AS Distributed Vir Environments (3:0-3)
This class will examine network programming techniques that will enable an application to maintain information about distributed clients interacting in a virtual environment. The student will investigate and implement one of these techniques as time allows. The student will provide a comparison of the various methods with emphasis on the method(s) selected for implementation.

CS 890AT Intro to Rough Sets (3:0-0)
Introduction to rough sets: knowledge vs clarification; approximation & rough sets; reduction of knowledge representations; dependencies; decision table & applications.

CS 890AU Adv Artificial Intelligence (3:0-3)
Advanced artificial intelligence: advanced issues in artificial intelligence.

CS 890AV Com Fluid Dyn in Real Time (3:0-3)
Computational fluid dynamics in real time simulation: to investigate simulating a self propelled object through a vector field using the object's polygon mesh to evaluate interactions with fluid representated by the vector field.

CS 890AW Web Mining (3:3-3)
Overview of basic issues of Web Mining in the context of Web Intelligence (WI). Investigations of adaptive personal web page design based on results from mining web log data.

CS 890AX Adv Interactive 3D Environment (3:0-3)
Advanced Interactive 3D Environments: Survey of techniques, Component Object Model (COM), Application Program Interface (API) for 3D Graphics. Direct Input of API for advanced input techniques. Direct Play API for distributed applications. Multimedia aspects (as time permits). Project.

CS 890AY Adv.Topics in Geometric Model (3:0-3)
Advanced Topics in Geometric Modelling: Multi resolutions polygon, mesh structures, polygon mesh optimization, interactive design.

CS 890AZ Rough Sets and Applications (3:0-3)
Rough Sets and Applications: Fundamental model of rough sets, variable precisions model of rough sets, applications in control about data.

CS 890BA Secure Computers and Networks (3:0-3)
Secure Computers and Networks: Fundamentals of Computer Security, Cryptography and Security Standards, Fire walls and Web Security and Case studies.

CS 890BB Using RS to Analyze Stud.Prog (3:0-3)
Using Rough Sets to Analyze Student Progress: The student will investigate the extension of rough set applications from Ms. Aileen Liang's M.Sc. Thesis.

CS 890BC Info. Retrieval for XML Dbs (3:0-3)
Information Retrieval for XML Databases: XML is becoming a standard method for storing data on the world wide web. Since no schema is provided, various methods for efficiency querying in the data will be discussed with emphasis on the use of information retrieval techniques to discover the structure of the data.

CS 890BD Adv. Topics in Visualization (3:0-3)
Advanced Topics in Visualization: volume rendering techniques, visualization of high dimensional data, animation of dynamic simulation results.

CS 890BE Spec. Topics in Comp. Graphics (3:0-3)
Special Topics in Computer Graphics: 3D Toon rendering, hair modeling and rendering, volume rendering techniques.

CS 890BF Neural Ntwks: Modeling & Appl. (3:0-3)
Neural Networks: Modeling & Applications. Biological-type neural networks, structures of neural networks, decision- based neural networks, rational-function neural networks and applications.

CS 890BG Mathematica and C (3:0-3)
Mathamatica can provide a sophisticated calculation solution or an integrated technical programming environment and graphically present the result, C is more powerful on prototyping and modulization. In this class students will compare and analyze their advantages, disadvantages and find ways to integrate and use both of them.

CS 890BH Fuzzy Sets and Applications (3:0-3)
Fuzzy Sets and Application: Introduction to Fuzzy Sets and Systems, introduction to rough sets and systems, connections between Fuzzy and Rough sets.

CS 890BI Advanced Web Browser Interface (3:0-3)
Topics in Advanced Web Browser Interfaces.

CS 890BJ Adv. Digital Processors (3:0-3)
Advanced Digital Signal Processors: Classification of DSP architectures, rapid prototyping of DSPs, digital signal multiprocessors, formal methods for scheduling assignments and allocation.

CS 890BK Data Cleaning (3:0-3)
Introduction to data cleaning. Missing values. Noisy Data. Inconsistent data, Syntactic transformation techniques. Integrity checking. Semantic transformation techniques. Software for data cleaning. Project.

CS 890BLAdvanced Java Topics (3:0-3)
Class will cover advanced Java programming with the focus on network programming in Java.

CS 890BM Graphical Models (3:0-3)
The use of graphical models used in probabilistic expert systems. This includes both the graphical structure and the procedures applied on the structures. Primary topics include directed acyclic graphs, acyclic hypergraphs, poly trees, d-separation, separation, local computation, and cutset conditioning.

CS 890BN Cryptography and Data Security (3:0-3)
Mathematical background of Cryptography, cryptographic protocols and techniques, symmetric-key cryptography algorithms and security analysis. One-way hash functions and public-key algorithms. Examples of cryptographic systems.

CS 890BO Visual Software Modelling (3:0-3)
Students will learn about visual software modelling methodologies and tools in the context of an interactive systems project. Students will also be responsible for project implementation.

CS 890BP Computer Graphics Topics (3:0-3)
Multi-resolution surface representations; rendering techniques for continuous levels of detail; virtual reality.

CS 890BQ Semantic Database Model (3:0-3)
Review of the relational database model. Functional dependency and its role in database design. Inclusion dependency. Introduction of the generalized semantic database model. Query optimization using inclusion dependencies.

CS 890BR Constraint Programming (3:3-3)
Constraint satisfaction, stochastic search, CLP, TSLP.

CS 890BS Web Intelligence and ECommerce (3:3-3)
This course investigates new research on web intelligence (WI) and electronic commerce (EC). WI exploits AI and advanced information technology on the web and internet. EC is a general term for any type of business that involves the transfer of information across the internet.

CS 890BT Formal Methods (3:3-3)
Study the concepts of formal methods; compilation, validation and verification; code generation, model checker; proving theorms; constraint satisfaction problems; LOTOS, E-LOTOS; CASE tools.

CS 890BU Intro Computational Geometry (3:0-3)
Convex hulls; voronoi diagrams; triangulations; geometric intersections; shortest paths and networks; applications.

CS 890BV Model-Based Data Mining (3:0-3)
Survey of statistical models. XML specification of domain knowledge. Data summarization. Anomaly detection. Java-based implementation of data mining procedures. Project.

CS 890BW Animation Software Design (3:3-3)
Principles of Animation. Animation software. Graphics file formats. Timelines, motion pathways, parametric keyframing, and kinematics. Digital special effects. Interface requirements. Behavioral animation systems. Project.

CS 890BX Digital Asset Management (3:3-3)
A course in special topics in which the student makes an independent study in computer science under the supervision of a faculty member in the department. *** The student and the supervisor must present a detailed outline of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration. ***

CS 890BY Agent Based Systems (3:3-3)
Agent-oriented Software; Agent-oriented Software lifecycle; a real application; development in UML; Rational Rose.

CS 890BZ Advanced Java Programming (3:3-3)
The course covers advanced programming topics in Java such as network programming.

CS 890CA Foundation of Data Mining (3:3-3)
This course investigates research topics in data mining.

CS 890CB Research Methods in CS (3:3-3)
Review of the major consideration and tasks involved in conducting scientific research, with emphasis on Computer Science. Research Methodology. Technical writing.

CS 890CC Numerical Analysis Simulation (3:3-3)
Advanced Numerical Analysis Methods, Approximation Theory and Optimization. Numerical Solutions of Nonlinear Systems of Equations.

CS 890CD Advanced Visualization Topics (3:3-3)
Advanced topics in scientific visualization and information visualization

CS 890CE Constraint-Based Agents (3:3-3)
Agents Search paradigms and frameworks Global constraint for local search Structural constraint satisfaction Applications

CS 890CF Human Computer Communication (3:3-3)
Theory and practice related to the design and implementation of usable software and easy-to-learn interfaces. Specific topics will include user-centered design and task analysis; design and methods of evaluation.

CS 890CG Computer Audio Topics (3:3-3)
Representation of audio, compression, spatialization and surround sound, analysis and synthesis, speech, music, temporal and spectral processing. *** Written permission of the instructor is required to register. ***

CS 890CH Special Topics in Comp Geom (3:3-3)
Many computational problems in graphics, computer aided geometric design, visualization etc. have an explicit or hidden geometric content. This course will train students to design and analyze widely used and applicable algorithms for exploiting the geometric content of such computational problems. *** Written Permission of the Instructor is required to register. ***

CS 890CI Topics in Software Security (3:3-3)
Research topics on security of mobile code-language environments, extensible software, and operating systems.

CS 890CJ Specification Implementation (3:3-3)
Algebraic Specifications Object Orientated Refinement C++ Java

CS 890CK Data Prep for Data Mining (3:3-3)
Data exploration. Impact of World on Data Preparation. Data Preparation Process. Data discovery, characterization, and assembly. Sampling, Variability, and Confidence. Handling Non-Numerical Variables. Normalizing and Redistributing Variables. Replacing Missing and Empty Variables. Series Variables. Data Survey. Project. *** Written permission of the Instructor is required to register. ***

CS 890CL Rough Set Theory (3:3-3)
This is a directed reading course concerned with basic theory and applications of rough sets. The coverage will include Pawlak's model Variable Precision rough set approaches. *** Written permission of the instructor is required to register. ***

CS 890CM System Design with System C (3:3-3)
Methodology and Techniques of System-on-a-Chip design. Introduction to System C languages and HDL. System level modeling and simulations. DSP core and interface design. Integrating DSP/RISC, I/O's and other components

CS 890CN Agent Interaction Protocols (3:3-3)
Software reuse, Software composition agent interaction protocols, case studies formal specification, validation and verification.

CS 890CO Heuristic Algorithms in Optim (3:3-3)
In this course, we will study state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding approximation solutions, including simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, ant colony algorithms, tabu search and others.

CS 890CP Searching Networks (3:3-3)
In this course, we will study state-of-the-art methods for computing the optimal search strategies for networks under different models, including basic pursuit-evasion (BPE), combinatorial sweep, monotomic sweep, connected sweep and others.

CS 890CQ Advanced Probabilistic Systems (3:3-3)
State-of-the-art models for probabilistic reasoning, including hierarchical Markov networks, nested jointrees, multiply-sectioned Bayesian networks, and the maximal prime decomposition of Bayesian networks. State-of-the-art probability propagation algorithms for inference such as LAZY propagation in the HUGIN expert system

CS 890CR Data Mining (3:3-3)
The course involves studying classical approaches to data mining such as rule searching, rough sets, decision trees, neural networks and statistical approaches.

CS 890CS Time Series Forecasting (3:3-3)
The course focuses on a study of neural networks for time series forecasting, the application will be forecasting of stock data. Traditional statistical methods will be examined for time series forecasting. The two approaches will be compared in terms of the pros and cons for time series forecasting. A system will be developed for forecasting stock

CS 890CU DVD Design and Implementation (3:3-3)
This course explores the technical and aesthetic skills requires to design and implement a DVD. Topics include criteria for evaluating DVDs, digital editing techniques, encoding audio and video, scripting DVDs, creation of interface components, testing techniques for navigational capabilities, and evaluation of a DVD.

CS 890CV Automated Update of Databases (3:3-3)
Automating the update and retrieval process for databases. Uses for automation. Wrappers and other techniques of automation. Limits of wrapper design. Implementation and analysis of wrapper design techniques.

CS 890CW Information Visualization (3:0-3)
Theoretic models of information visualization. Techniques, algorithms, and systems. Visual representation of complex information space and high-dimensional data sets.

CS 890CX Rough Set Theory Adv Topics (3:0-3)
The course involves studying advanced approaches based on rough set theory, including variable precision rough set model, bayesian rough set model and applications. This is a research-oriented course requiring the student to study a number of research papers on the subject of the class.

CS 890CY Text Classification Algorithms (3:0-3)
Survey of Text Classification Algorithms. Use of Ontologies in text Classification. Evaluation of wordnet as an ontology in text classification. Detailed comparison of recent text classification methods. Implementation and experimental evaluation of text classification algorithms using benchmark datasets.

CS 890CZ Text Classification Algorithms (3:0-3)
It extends the fundamental material related to data mining, machine learning, Bayesian networks and rough set graduate courses towards dealing with more complex knowledge representation models, encoding knowledge in various, possibly graphical forms dedicated to the application domain needs. Algorithmic approaches to learning such models from real-life data are extensively studied.

CS 890DA Topics on Grid Computing (3:0-3)
Research topics in grid computing: grid architecture; networking; security; resource management.

CS 890DB Text Classification Algorithms (3:0-3)
The course will explore methods used in computer vision and recognition (classification) of images.

CS 890DC Implementing Probabilistic Expert Systems (3:3-3)
This course examines the effects on computational efficiency in practice by implementing various techniques for constructing probability distributions in probabilistic expert systems. Topics include Bayesian networks, join tree propagation, and direct computation techniques.

CS 890DD Information Theory and Applications (3:3-3)
This course covers the fundamentals of information theory and its application in content distribution over the Internet. Topics covered include: information theory, channel codes, content distribution network, and peer-to-peer network coding.

CS 890DE Advanced Topics in Robotics (3:3-3)
Motion planning, configuration space, cell decomposition methods (exact vs approximate), roadmap methods (visibility graphs, Voronoi graph), potential field-based methods, planning with uncertainty, robot control using vision, multiple robots, nonholonomic robots, computational issues in planning, control, and sensing.

CS 890DF Advanced Intrusion Detection (3:3-3)
Investigating intrusion detection systems, particularly on Support Vector Machine and Rough Set. Developing a novel hybrid model combining SUM and Rough Set in order to improve the speed and accuracy. Apply the new model on different data sets.

CS 890DG Agent-Oriented Distributed Systems (3:3-3)
This course will explore distributed systems using agent technology.

CS 890DH Topics on Communications (3:3-3)
Communication network modeling, Multicast problem, Steiner tree problem, Network coding, Rateless codes, P2P file sharing systems, performance evaluation.

CS 890DI Topics in Programming Languages (3:3-3)
Topics in programming paradigms, language design, semantics, and static analysis.

CS 890DJ Assessing Roles of Variables (3:3-3)
The objective is to investigate the body of knowledge available on the role of variables in programs. The project will focus on the role of variables in programs written by IPSCO information specialists.

CS 890DK Advanced Topics in Interface Personalization (3:3-3)
Advanced topics in computer software user interface personalization will deal with one or more of areas such as: user preference modelling, temporal demand models. Filtering, interface cost models, evaluative indices, decision analysis, navigational pattern analysis, and content semantics.

CS 890DL Special Topics in Computer Vision (3:3-3)
Image feature extraction, segmentation, and 3D object recognition techniques.

CS 890DM Topics in Performance Evaluation (3:3-3)
This course covers various topics on performance evaluation of computation and communication systems. Examples include system security, privacy and communication efficiency.

CS 890DN Web Engineering (3:3-3)
Design and implementation of web software systems and also web service based applications. Study of web architectures, design patterns and frameworks using the UML

CS 890DO Topics in Compiler Design (0-3:3-3)
Design and implementation of compilers. Topics include lexical analysis, parsing, context-sensitive analysis, intermediate representation, optimization, and code generation.

CS 890DP Service Oriented Architecture (3:3-3)
A study of service oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and their advantages. XML (eXtensive Markup Language) and its associated family of standards will be discussed and used in student projects.

CS 890DQ Granular Computing (3:3-3)
This course covers a new research field called granular computing (GrC). Topics include fundamentals of GrC and its applications in different research fields, such as rough set and formal concept analysis, current research and development, and future directions of GrC.

CS 890DR Pattern Classification (3:3-3)
Decision Theory, Discriminant Functions, Maximum Likelihood, Parametric and Non-Parametric Methods, Gaussian Mixture Models, Stochastic Methods, Machine Learning and Clustering.

CS 890DS Visual Analytics (3:3-3)
Visual analytics is a multi-disciplinary field that facilitates analytical reasoning through interactive visual interfaces. Topics of study will include aspects of visualization, human factors, and data analysis in aid of conducting an analysis of available data.

CS 890DT End User Computing for Interaction (3:3-3)
End user computing can be applied to a broad spectrum of approaches, with which the student will be acquainted. In particular, this class will examine and explore the means by which end-user computing can empower users and support their efforts when dealing with new situations, allowing new means of interaction with existing applications.

CS 890DU Web Based Learning Support Systems (3:3-3)
This course will provide a comprehensive coverage of various topics in Web mining, including Web usage mining, Web content mining, Web structure mining, Web data management, and Web personalization. The primary focus of this course is on Web usage mining and its applications to e-learning and web intelligence. Specifically, this course will consider techniques from machine learning, data mining, statistics, information retrieval, and databases to extract useful knowledge from Web data which could be used for e-learning, personalization, and user profiling.

CS 890DV Wireless Mobile Applications (3:3-3)
Development and deployment of software for wireless mobile applications; use of state-of-the-art development tools and integrated development environments; development strategies for performance and reliability; methods for testing and debugging; methods for experimental evaluation; use of hardware simulators.

CS 890DW The Internet and Social Participation (3:3-3)
The internet has the potential to enliven social participation even as traditional social structures may be in retreat. Powerful new technologies can support this potential, but only so far as they serve the people who would use them. This class will consider the growing variety of online communities, what technology supports them, and what opportunities exist.

CS 890DX Matchmaking Services for Auctions (3:3-3)
Matchmaking Algorithm Design; Interest-based Matchmaking; Multi-Attribute Auctions; Reverse Auctions; Purchasing Computers with Several Attributes; Data Clustering; Interest Model Simulation; Interest Learning.

CS 890DY Special Topics in Image Processing (3:3-0)
Selected topics in one or more areas from image/video segmentation, analysis, quality measurement, transformation, encoding, compression, and other emerging areas. Reading materials include 3 to 5 book chapters and 10 to 15 recent journal/conference proceeding articles. A term project is required.

CS 890DZ Implementing Probabilistic Expert Systems (3:3-0)
This course examines the effects on computational efficiency in practice by implementing various techniques for constructing probability distributions in probabilistic expert systems. Topics include Bayesian networks, join tree propagation and direct computation techniques.

CS 890EA Run Time Monitoring of Online Auctions (3:3-0)
The objective is to monitor shills in online auctions. The student has to identify shills for reverse auctions. He will develop an architecture for monitoring shills at run-time. Performance and security are major concerns to take into account. He will develop an aggregation algorithm based on the Dempster-Shafer.

CS 890EB Topics in Computer Animation (3:3-0)
In this course a student makes a detailed independent study of topics in Computer Animation under the supervision of a faculty member. The student and supervisor must present a detailed outline of the proposed study to the head of the department for approval before registration.

CS 890EC Computational Learning Theory (1-3:3-0)
Selected topics in computational learning theory and applications, e .g., models of interactive machine learning, privacy-preserving learning, statistical learning, recursion-theoretic models of learning, complexity analysis of learning algorithms. Reading materials include 2 book chapters and 10-15 research articles. A term project is required.

CS 890ED Logic Programming for Artificial Intelligence (1-3:3-0)
This course considers the use of logic programming in Artificial Intelligence. Topics include using logic programming for traditonal tasks such as search, learning and game playing. A major component of the course will be the creation of a logic program to solve a nontrivial artificial intelligence task.

CS 890EE Advanced Topics in Granular Computing (3:3-0)
Granular computing and soft computing have begun to play important roles in bioinformatics, e-business, security, machine learning, and data mining. This course will focus on theory and applications of granular computing.

CS 890EF Advanced Topics in Data Mining (3:3-0)
Data Mining uses machine learning, statistical and visualization techniques to discover and present knowledge in a form which is easily comprehensible to humans. This course will focus on the theory and applications of Data Mining particulary on email systems.

CS 890EG Topics in Mobile Computing (1-3:3-0)
The student will undertake an individual research project related to Mobile Computing under the direction of a faculty member.

CS 890EH Interactive Hardware for Computing Applications (3:3-2)
Embedded and mobile hardware design for physical computing; wireless sensor networks, electronic circuit theory; circuit board design and fabrication and in-circuit programming; robotics, computer vision, audio, sensing and interaction; Software systems such as Processing and OpenFrameworks; hardware systems such as ARM and AVR (Arduino).

CS 890EI Topics in Interactive Entertainment Software
This course provides an intensive study of one or more topics related to Interactive Entertainment Software. Potential topics include game architectures, virtual worlds, virtual characters, game physics, game artificial intelligence and game audio.

CS 890EJ - Intelligent Tutoring System (3 credit hrs)
This course considers the development and application of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. It explores the relationship between intelligent tutoring, cognitive learning theories, and design. It also reviews the evolution from Computer-Assisted instruction to Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction to modern Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

CS 890EK - Topics in Software Engineering (3 credit hrs)
This course will focus on two widely used agile software development methodologies: Extreme Programming (XP) and Scrum. XP describes a process which is used to create software in an agile and productive way. It provides guidelines for managing the development process, but its primary focus is on engineering practices for a team approach to groupware style development that have been shown to lead quality software.

CS 890EL Topics in Software Development (3 credit hrs)
This course provides an intensive study of one or more topics related to Software Development. Potential topics include project planning, requirements analysis, software architecture, programming methodologies, implementation and testing, metrics and cost estimation, software reuse, computer-aided software engineering, configuration management, and current research.

CS 890EM Topics in Algorithmic Analysis (3 credit hrs)
This course provides an intensive study of one or more topics related to Algorithmic Analysis. Potential topics include formal algorithmic languages, measures of complexity, type of analysis, bounds of algorithms, classes of problems, and parallel computational models and algorithms.



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