# Lab 6: Servos, For Loops, and Accelerometer

## 1.Overview

The focus of this lab is on servos. Once you understand servos, you will be able to see that they have wonderful applications for steering! In this lab we will take a look at some sample code that moves a servo arm. We will discuss the functions that we use with a servo and the beauty of a "for" loop. If you are interested, this lab also provides side information on how to use a potentiometer and LEGO Mindstorms Accelerometer with the servo. Enjoy!

## 2. First Build

### 2.1 The Circuit

The schematic diagram for the servo looks like this. Be aware though that in reality, the 5V is connected to the middle wire (red).

Our breadboard will look like this. Note that on our device, the black wire is brown and the yellow is orange.

To summarize the wires of the servo:

• brown goes to the ground (rail)
• red goes to the 5V (rail)
• orange goes to pin 9

### 2.2 The Code

Under the File menu, choose: Examples | Servo | Sweep. The following is what the code should look like:

```// Sweep
// by BARRAGAN
// This example code is in the public domain.

#include <Servo.h>

Servo myservo;  // create servo object to control a servo
// a maximum of eight servo objects can be created

int pos = 0;    // variable to store the servo position

void setup()
{
myservo.attach(9);  // attaches the servo on pin 9 to the servo object
}

void loop()
{
for(pos = 0; pos < 180; pos += 1)  // goes from 0 degrees to 180 degrees
{                                  // in steps of 1 degree
myservo.write(pos);              // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
delay(15);                       // waits 15ms for the servo to reach the position
}
for(pos = 180; pos>=1; pos-=1)     // goes from 180 degrees to 0 degrees
{
myservo.write(pos);              // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
delay(15);                       // waits 15ms for the servo to reach the position
}
}
```

## 3. Hardware Theory

We will spend some time discussing this new device-the servo! This device is most useful in steering. For instance, controlling the axles of a car, the control surfaces on a plane, or the rudders of a boat.

### 3.1 What is a Servo?

The first question that you may be asking is: what is the difference between a servo and a motor? There are several differences. Most generally, a motor rotates in circles round and round (useful for spinning a wheel). By contrast, a servo is a controlled placement usually between 0 and 180 degrees (useful for steering).

So what are the nuts and bolts behind the operation of the servo? As you might have noticed, there were three wires going into your servo:

• power -- typically red and connected to the 5V pin on the Arduino board
• ground -- typically black or brown and connected to the ground pin on the Arduino board
• signal -- typically yellow, orange or white and connected to a digital pin on the Arduino board

As a note, if you need to drive more than one or two servos, you will probably need a separate power supply (not the 5V pin on your Arduino). (Modified from: http://www.arduino.cc/en/Reference/Servo)

Without getting into too many details of the internal workings of the servo, the "signal" wire (orange on your device) controls the position of the servo arm. The idea is that the servo responds to how long the signal is on. For instance, it checks in a 20 millisecond time period and if the signal is high for 0.45 milliseconds, then the arm is positioned at 0o. The following diagram (modified from http://www.servocity.com/html/how_do_servos_work_.html) represents the timings and how the servo arm moves:

These timings are manufacturer dependent. So, these pulses may work for one servo, but differ for another. Also, other servos may have different angles of rotation. For your reference, the servo in your kit is a Hextronik HXT900 9 gram servo, and its specs are here.

You might think that analog writing, which is also PWM based, would work for servos. Don't do it (http://www.arduino.cc/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1232572239)...Instead use the functions that we will be talking about below.

## 4. Software Theory

Last week you learned how to write functions. This week, we will examine special functions associated with servos. Also, we will take a closer look at a "for" loop as a way of repeating things a certain number of times. Let us take a look at the code again:

```// Sweep
// by BARRAGAN
// This example code is in the public domain.

#include <Servo.h>

Servo myservo;  // create servo object to control a servo
// a maximum of eight servo objects can be created

int pos = 0;    // variable to store the servo position

void setup()
{
myservo.attach(9);  // attaches the servo on pin 9 to the servo object
}

void loop()
{
for(pos = 0; pos < 180; pos += 1)  // goes from 0 degrees to 180 degrees
{                                  // in steps of 1 degree
myservo.write(pos);              // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
delay(15);                       // waits 15ms for the servo to reach the position
}
for(pos = 180; pos>=1; pos-=1)     // goes from 180 degrees to 0 degrees
{
myservo.write(pos);              // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
delay(15);                       // waits 15ms for the servo to reach the position
}
}
```

### 4.1 Functions in Bundles

#include <Servo.h>

What this line means is that we will be using a servo library. A library is a collection of functions bundled together that you can use in multiple sketches. We don't have to worry about the internal code of these functions; we just need to know what arguments to use with these functions and what gets returned from these functions. If you are curious (and brave), you can look at the code in the libraries directory of your Arduino install directory.

The next line that may also seem unfamiliar is:

Servo myservo;

This line creates a servo object called myservo. A servo object is responsible for controlling one servo. To use it, you attach it to an output pin, then you send it commands. You will notice that all of the servo functions in the example are preceded by the object name (myservo) and a dot. You can create up to 12 Servo objects on your Arduino Uno. Each should have a different name that you will need to use with the servo functions.

Once you have created a servo object, the PWM timers for pins 9 and 10 are no longer available. Those timers are used to automatically send control signals to the servo. You can still use them for a servo, so it's probably a good idea to use them for the first couple of servos you attach.

There are six functions in the Servo library. You can read about them in the libraries section of the arduino reference pages: http://www.arduino.cc/en/Reference/Servo. We will take a look at two of them in the following subsections:

1. attach()
2. write()

#### 4.1.1 attach()

In the setup function, you will notice that the attach function is called like this:

myservo.attach(9);

Remember our servo has one "signal" wire (in this lab, going to pin 9). From a general perspective, the attach function hooks the Servo object to the specified pin so that when we perform writes (or reads) the signal will go out to (or be read from) that pin.

#### 4.1.2 write()

The use of the write function in this lab is:

myservo.write(pos);

On our servo, this will set the angle of the shaft (in degrees). The pos is a value from 0 to 180.

### 4.2 The "For" Loop

The for loop appears in two places in the servo code:

```  for(pos = 0; pos < 180; pos += 1)  // goes from 0 degrees to 180 degrees
{                                  // in steps of 1 degree
myservo.write(pos);              // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
delay(15);                       // waits 15ms for the servo to reach the position
}
for(pos = 180; pos>=1; pos-=1)     // goes from 180 degrees to 0 degrees
{
myservo.write(pos);              // tell servo to go to position in variable 'pos'
delay(15);                       // waits 15ms for the servo to reach the position
}  ```

The for loop is typically broken down into three segments:

1. Initialization
2. Condition
3. Increment or Decrement.

These three segments are shown encircled in pale red:

Notice:

• segments are separated by semi-colons
• pos+=1 is equivalent to writing pos=pos+1

The for loop is a very handy structure. As an overview, the above statement informs you (when you get used to it) that the pos variable will start at 0 and be incremented by 1 until it reaches 180. The purpose of the entire loop is to control the servo so that it starts a 0o and moves to 179o. Why only 179o?

By contrast, where does the following loop start and end?

for(pos = 180; pos>=1; pos-=1)

## 5. Extensions

For those of you who are really excited about servos, we have provided an additional page of information about using a potentiometer and an accelerometer/tilt sensor to drive the servo. Click here!

## 6. Exercise

Let's focus on what is important in this lab:

• how to control the servo
• using a for loop

This exercise asks you to modify the original servo code (File | Examples | Servo | Sweep) to create a "pendulum" effect.

### Details:

In the original sweep sketch, the servo swings from side to side from 0 to 180 then 180 to 1. Your lab instructor should have modified that sketch with you so that it can sweep out angles centered on 90. You are going to extend that idea so that the servo starts at 90 then swings 10 degrees to either side of 90 (eg. 80 to 100 and 100 to 80), then 20 degrees on either side (eg. 70 to 110 and 110 to 70) and so forth until it is swinging 90 degrees on either side. See if you can get it swinging smoothly.

To do this, you will add a for loop around the two existing for loops. The new for loop will have the three segments:

1. initialization: to 0
2. condition: less than or equal to 90
3. increment: by 10

You are going to have to play around with the original two for loops so that their initializations and conditions depend on the new for loop.

Give it a whirl!

### Challenge (Bonus):

Once you've demonstrated the basics, it's time to stretch a bit.

#### Beginner

Control the speed of your increments/decrements using the input from the potentiometer or LEGO Mindstorms Accelerometer as shown in the Extensions section of the notes.

• Make sure you can change the speed at any time. This may require reading from the sensor inside of more than one for loop.
• If you choose to use the LEGO Mindstorms Accelerometer, you might want to make the reading instructions into a value returning function.

#### Intermediate

Edit the simple HTAccel library given in the Extensions section of the notes so that it can provide Y values too. Use Y values to control the servo.

Requires partner or second Arduino. Due next week.

• Look at the Wire library examples provided in the Ardino IDE.
• Design a master/slave pair that allows the master to read a potentiometer on the slave and use the resulting value to fade an LED or move a servo

### Deliverables:

All marking will be done in lab this week.
• Show the code for this new "pendulum". Be prepared to discuss the relationship between your outer and inner loops.
• Demontrate the movement of your servo
• Demonstrate your Challenge if you completed one.