Lab 2: Points, Primitives and 2D Art

Highlights of this lab:

This lab is an introduction to Fundamental OpenGL Functions


After the lab lecture, you have one week to:

Seminar Notes

Before you begin this seminar, create a new template project like you did in the first lab - like the first one before you added triangle code. You will complete the project by following the instructions in this lab's notes instead.

A. Lab 1 Follow-up

OpenGL is an operating system and hardware platform independent graphics library designed to be easily portable yet rapidly executable. Unlike Direct3D, which is only available on PC, Xbox 360 and Windows Mobile OS, OpenGL is available on a wide variety of hardware platforms and operating systems including Unix/X11 (Linux, Irix, BSD, Solaris), Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows 98 to Windows 8. The embedded version, OpenGL ES, is available on many hand held devices including iPhone OS and Android OS devices. A Javascript version of OpenGL ES 2.0 called WebGL 1.0 is an official part of the HTML 5 specification. A massive update to OpenGL coming soon in the form of Vulkan, which was officially released in February 2016. The first games appeared soon after, with a few major releases adding official support over summer 2016.

The basic steps to use OpenGL in a program are:

What are DCs and RCs?

What is a pixel format?

B. WebGL Rendering Functions

The Rendering Context Object

All the functions in the WebGL API are accessed through the Rendering Context object. That is why the WebGL Javascript programs you have seen so far all have a global variable called GL at the top:
var gl; //Generic variable, intended to hold WebGL RC object
The Rendering Context object is acquired with the getContext function built into HTML5 canvases. This function may also provide access to other types of renderers. To be sure that the function is called correctly on older web browsers, and to handle cases where it fails, Google's cross browser webgl-utils.js provides setupWebGL() which wraps getContext().
   //without webgl-utils:
   //find canvas by id name
   var canvas = document.getElementById( /* your canvas element's id goes here */);
   //get webgl RC and do some minimal error checking
   try {
      gl = canvas.getContext("webgl" /*, optional attributes */ );
   } catch (e) {
      try {
        canvas.parentNode.innerHTML("Cannot get WebGL Rendering Context");
        // could also try alternatives like webgl-experimental or moz-webgl
      } catch (e) {
        // ???
   //with webgl-utils
   var canvas = document.getElementById( /* your canvas element's id goes here */);
   gl = WebGLUtils.setupWebGL(canvas /*, optional attributes */);

Once you have a rendering context, all your interactions with WebGL will be through the object. This means that if your rendering context object is called gl all WebGL calls will begin gl.. WebGL constants are also defined as members of the rendering context object. For example, in this lab you will see:

                   Functions                       Constants
                   ===============                 ==============
Data Management    gl.createBuffer()               gl.STATIC_DRAW
                   gl.bindBuffer()                 gl.DYNAMIC_DRAW
                   gl.bufferData()                 gl.STREAM_DRAW

Shader Management  gl.getAttribLocation()          

Built-in Settings  
                   gl.clearColor()                 gl.FRONT
                   gl.clearDepth()                 gl.BACK
                   gl.cullFace()                   gl.FRONT_AND_BACK
                   gl.frontFace()                  gl.CW
                   gl.enable()                     gl.CCW

Draw               gl.clear()                      gl.LINES 
                   gl.drawArrays()                 gl.LINE_LOOP 


For a full list see the section on The WebGL Context in the WebGL Specification or check the Mozilla Developer's Page on WebGLRenderingContext.

Setting Up a Shader Program

Before you can do any drawing you need to tell WebGL what to do with the things you tell it to draw. You do this with shader programs. WebGL uses OpenGL ES Shading Language 1.0 as its shader programming language. It is a modified version of GLSL 1.2. Shader programs consist of a minimum of two parts: a vertex shader and a fragment shader.

You may also have heard of two other shader types: geometry shaders, tesselation shaders, and compute shaders. Geometry shaders were introduced in OpenGL 3.2 Core Profile, tesselation shaders were introduced in OpenGL 4.0 and compute shaders were introduced in OpenGL 4.3. They are optional in all versions of OpenGL and are not available at all in WebGL, so they will not be covered in these labs.

Vertex Shader

You will send lists of vertex information into a vertex shader. This information comes in through variables labelled with the attribute modifier. This information represents attributes of the vertex that can change from one vertex to the next such as colour and position. In newer OpenGL programs, vertex shader inputs are simply marked in.

When we are done manipulating and creating shader properties, we pass the results along to the fragment shader through outputs labelled with the varying modifier. The vertex shader outputs for the vertices in the same primitive will be interpolated across the primitive - if they weren't all the same their values will vary from fragment to fragment. In newer OpenGL programs, vertex shader outputs are are simply marked outs.

Below is our first vertex shader. Replace the vertex-shader in your template with this vertex shader code:

attribute  vec2 vPosition; //receives incoming vertex positions
varying vec4 color;    //passes the colour of this vertex to the fragment shader

void main() 
  //Add default z and w coordinates to the incoming position and pass it on.
  gl_Position = vec4(vPosition, 0.0, 1.0);

  //Colour every vertex red
  color = vec4(1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); //colour channels are red, green, blue and alpha

This vertex shader only has one input which represents a 2D coordinate for the vertex. This coordinate is in a 2 component vector which has a base type of float. Vertices can be moved around in space, coloured, and lit by the vertex shader. You will explore many of these things later. For now, our vertex program will only provide a colour for the vertex. This colour is hard coded and will be the same for all vertices. You will learn how to change this colour programmatically later on.

Our first vertex shader uses two outputs as well. You can see the declaration for a 4 component vector, vec4, for colour, and we use the built-in output gl_Position, which is also a vec4, which is why the shader adds two more components to vPosition when we assign it to gl_Position.

All vertex shaders have a second built-in output, gl_PointSize which controls the size of points. It's value controls the point's width in pixels.

Fragment Shader

The fragment shader gets data that is blended from each vertex that makes up the primitive being drawn. This could be a position somewhere between each vertex, a texture lookup coordinate, or a blended colour. For now our shader will ignore the built-in inputs and simply copy the incoming colour to the screen.

Replace the fragment-shader in your template with this fragment shader code:

precision mediump float;

varying  vec4 color; //The blended fragment colour from the vertex shader.
                     //Names of varying inputs to a fragment shader must match
                     //a varying output from the vertex shader.

void main() 
    gl_FragColor = color;

This fragment has one input for the interpolated colour. It is important that names for the inputs you create in a fragment shader match the name of an output you create in the vertex shader.

There is a built-in 4 component output vector, or vec4, called gl_FragColor that you should set in most fragment shader programs to provide the colour output for the fragment shader. If you don't, the output colour will be undefined.

In addition to gl_FragColor, fragment shaders have three more varying inputs:

  1. gl_FragCoord the fragment's xyz value relative to the view,
  2. gl_FrontFacing - indicates if the front (true) or back (false) is facing the viewer
  3. gl_PointCoord - used to create shaped, varicolored, or textured points
and one more output:
  1. gl_FragData[n] - used instead of gl_FragColor to send different outputs to varied custom output buffers for more advanced rendering techniques.
Loading, Compiling and Using the Shader Program
Compiling shaders is an involved process. You have to get the shader code as text, compile the individual pieces correctly, then link them. You are also responsible for checking for compile and link errors and reporting them. Dr. Angel has provided a function that does all this for you. I strongly suggest that you use it. His function is called initShaders(). You should call initShaders from within your init function, and use the result as the active shader like this:
    // Load and compile shaders, then use the resulting shader program
    var program = initShaders(gl, "vertex-shader", "fragment-shader" );
    gl.useProgram( program );

OpenGL Primitives

Your graphics hardware has limited ability to represent geometry. Most hardware only knows how to render triangle primitives. Everything else is built up using triangles. Older versions of OpenGL included some other shapes that might have been supported by some specialized hardware, such as convex polygons and quadrilaterals, but that support has been removed from most newer versions. Below is a diagram showing the different primitive types or modes:

Here's a cool interactive Primitives Demo

Drawing with one of these types is controlled by a drawArrays or drawElements function. The drawArrays function tells your rendering context to begin drawing a certain number of elements from a list of vertex data that has already been loaded into an array buffer object and connected to appropriate shader inputs. The drawElements is similar, but requires an additional element index buffer that allows you to access the data in the vertex arrays out of order - this is the last you'll hear of drawElements in the labs. Regardless of which you use, to be able to draw you will need to know how to load vertex data into a buffer, and how to attach it to a shader attribute.


Defining Vertex Data

Basic WebGL rendering primitives are made up of lists of vertices. Vertex data can be two, three of four dimensional. An extra dimension is sometimes necessary to properly move vertices around in space. Vertex data is most often represented with the vec2, vec3, and vec4 data types in the shader. These are 2, 3 and 4 component floating point structures. This data should be uploaded from javascript arrays of 32-bit floating point type. For example, the following two dimensional array gives the 2D coordinates for the three vertices in a triangle:

//Triangle positions
var points = new Float32Array
	 0.9,  0.9,
	 0.9,  0.0,
	 0.0,  0.9

The number of coordinates provided per vertex should match the vec type specified on the position input of the shader you are using. If it doesn't, it may be padded to fit.

The textbook's MVnew.js file defines Javascript classes for the vec2, vec3 and vec4 data types. The following code is identical to to the array above, but uses the vec2 class:

//Triangle positions
var points =
	vec2( 0.9,  0.9),
	vec2( 0.9,  0.0),
	vec2( 0.0,  0.9)

You can use either form, but I prefer to use arrays of vec* classes because they are compatible with the math functions provided by Dr. Angel, and provide an easy way to add and remove points with .push() and .pop() functions. This would allow you to easily write functions to create arbitrarily large arrays, like this one for making circles with radius of 1:

function circle(sides)
   var vertices = []; // create empty array
   if (sides < 3)
      console.log("function circle: Not enough sides to make a polygon.");
      if (sides > 10000)
         sides = 10000;
         console.log("function circle: Sides limited to 10,000.");
      for (var i = sides; i >= 0; i--)
         vertices.push(vec2(Math.cos(i/sides*2*Math.PI), Math.sin(i/sides*2*Math.PI)));
   return vertices;

They are also easily concatenated with the concat method, which comes in handy for packing multiple drawable objects into one buffer.

Pros Cons
Float32Array Exact type required for most common WebGL buffers One dimensional
Hard to manipulate
Arrays of vec2, vec3, vec4 Elements have math support in MVnew.js
Easy to extend and concatenate
Must be flattened before sending to a buffer.
Flattening translates into a Float32Array and takes
a lot of time if you update buffer data frequently
Loading Vertex Data into Buffers

Once you have some vertex data, you need to load it into buffers. Each array can be loaded into a separate buffer, or all the arrays can be packed into the same buffer. You will find examples of both in various code samples in your textbook. For now, we will use two separate buffers: one for vertex positions and one for vertex colours.

To create a buffer, you use the createBuffer (similar to the OpenGL ES glGenBuffers command. createBuffer() creates a valid buffer name which you must bind to load with buffer data or attach to a shader attribute.

WebGLBuffer createBuffer()

Once you have a buffer name, you bind it with bindBuffer. A buffer is not allocated until you bind it the first time.

void bindBuffer(GLenum target,  WebGLBuffer buffer);

Where target indicates what type of data the buffer holds - either ARRAY_BUFFER or ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER - and buffer is a valid buffer name generated with createBuffer().

You will use the target type ARRAY_BUFFER for storing all vertex data in these labs.

With the buffer bound, you are ready to load data into it with glBufferData. This function comes in two forms form 1 specify buffer size and initialize with 0s, and form 2 initialize from a data source - like a flat array.

Form 1:

void bufferData(GLenum  target,  GLsizeiptr  size,  GLenum  usage);

Form 2:

void bufferData(GLenum  target,  BufferDataSource  data,  GLenum  usage);


Since you will likely use your buffers for drawing simple geometric objects, you will generally specify the STATIC_DRAW usage type. If you plan to update the buffer frequently, you might want to specify DYNAMIC_DRAW. If you plan to use the buffer infrequently you should specify STREAM_DRAW. A buffer's data may be updated with another call to bufferData() or with a call to subBufferData(). If you plan to update only a portion of a buffer's data, consider using glBufferSubData.

Here is how we would load our sample triangle position data. Since we will only load the data once, place this code in init after the shader loading code:
Place this code in init after the shader loading code. Make sure you have also added one of the two points definitions from earlier, or set points equal to the result of a circle function call:
    //*** Position buffer **********************
    // Create a buffer for vertex positions, make it active, and copy data to it
    var positionBuffer = gl.createBuffer();
    gl.bindBuffer( gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, positionBuffer );
    // Use this form for Float32Array data 
    //gl.bufferData( gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, points, gl.STATIC_DRAW ); 
    // Use this form for arrays of arrays or of vecs  
    gl.bufferData( gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, flatten(points), gl.STATIC_DRAW ); 
Attaching Buffers to Shader Programs
Once a buffer is loaded with data, it must be attached to the correct input in your shader program. To do this, you ask for the input by name, enable it, then attach your data in the currently bound buffer to the input with a description of how the data is formatted.

To get a reference to a shader input you use getAttribLocation.

GLint getAttribLocation(WebGLProgram program, DOMString name);

Where program is a valid, compiled shader program, and name is a character string containing the name of the desired shader input.
If name does not refer to a valid input in the specified shader program, the returned result will be -1. WebGL restricts shader names to a maximum of 256 characters and trying to request on with a longer name will also result in -1.

To enable the shader input you use enableVertexAttribArray.

void enableVertexAttribArray(GLuint index);

Where index is a valid value returned from getAttribLocation.

To attach the currently bound buffer to a shader input you use vertexAttribPointer.

void vertexAttribPointer(GLuint index, GLint size, GLenum type, GLboolean normalized, GLsizei stride, GLintptr offset);


The purpose of the size and type arguments is to describe the data being sent to the shader. If the original data doesn't match what's asked for in the shader, it will be converted for you. In fact, all vertex attributes are converted to size 4. If y or z are missing, they become 0, and if w is missing it becomes 1. You can then define an attribute in the shader of a different size depending on your need.

Here is how we will attach the sample triangle position buffer to the "vPosition" input of the shader:

Place this code in init after the buffer creation code
    //Enable the shader's vertex position input and attach the active buffer
    var vPosition = gl.getAttribLocation( program, "vPosition" );
    gl.enableVertexAttribArray( vPosition );
    gl.vertexAttribPointer( vPosition, 2, gl.FLOAT, gl.FALSE, 0, 0 );


Finally, to draw things, use drawArrays.

void drawArrays(GLenum mode, GLint first, GLsizei count);


To draw the sample triangle place this code in the draw function:

Place this code in the draw function before the glutSwapBuffers command:
    gl.clear( gl.COLOR_BUFFER_BIT );
    gl.drawArrays( gl.TRIANGLES, 0, 3 );

If you have done everything to this point you should see a red triangle in the upper right corner of an otherwise white rendering canvas. Now it'ss time to experiment with different drawing modes.


Only one type of point can be drawn:
You can control the size of the points by setting the value of the vertex shader's built-in gl_PointSize output. Although the WebGL specification only requires points of size 1, nearly all WebGL implementations allow a much wider range because textured points form the basis of many interesting effects.


Three different line primitives can be created:

Some WebGL implementations let you control the width of lines with lineWidth(). Most Macs implement the minimum range of line widths-, 1.0 to 1.0. You may find that your PC allows more.


Try this points array with each of the above triangle types:

var points =
	vec2( 0.0, 0.0 ),
	vec2( 0.5, 0.0 ),
	vec2( 0.5, 0.5 ),
	vec2(-0.5, 0.5 ),
	vec2(-1.0, 0.0 ),
	vec2(-0.5,-0.5 )
It may be hard to see why you get the results you observe. Consider the order the points are defined and how triangles are defined for each triangle type.

Specifying Colours

So far our shader has used a hard coded colour. You can change this colour in a running program in one of two ways: uniforms and attributes. These are explained below.

All our colours will be in RGBA format - Red, Green, Blue, Alpha. Alpha is an extra term used in blending operations. You can think of it as "transparency", but it can do more than that. The alpha channel will be ignored in our programs this week.

Uniform Colours

A uniform is a shader value that has a constant value during a draw operation, but can be changed between draw operations with WebGL commands. Uniforms can be declared in vertex and fragement shader programs.

In your shader code, a uniform is declared next to input varyings or attributes like this:

uniform type uniformName;

//eg: a 4 component colour uniform
uniform vec4 uColor; //copy this to your colour output

You get access to a uniform in much the same way as a vertex array input, but you use getUniformLocation:

   WebGLUniformLocation uniformLocation = rco.getUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "uniformName");

   //eg: get the colour from the example above for use in lab sample code
   var uColor; //Getting uniforms can be slow, so make this global 
   uColor = gl.getUniformLocation(program, "uColor"); //And put this in init. 
You change the value of a uniform with glUniform*() type functions. The * represents the format of the uniform you are changing and has two or three parts:
Here's a little mapping for you:
In ShaderMatching uniform*() function
vec2uniform2f or
vec3uniform3f or
vec4uniform4f or
To change the 4 component uColor above you might write either of these glUniform* calls:
   gl.uniform4f( uColor, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0 ); //Yellow

   var yellow = vec4( 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0 ); //Yellow
   gl.uniform4fv( uColor, flatten(yellow));

Vertex Colour Arrays

These work just like vertex position arrays. You will need to set up a second array input to your vertex shader, create a colour array, load it into a buffer and attach it to your shader. Here are samples of all threer.:

The following code defines an attribute input called vColor. It is similar to the code used for vPosition. You should assign the value in vColor to the color output:

Add this line to your vertex shader, next to the vPosition input, and modify your colour output value appropriately:
attribute vec4 vColor; // Per vertex colour input

Add the appropriate triangle colours to init near to the points array
//for initial triangle
var colors =
	vec4(1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0), //Red
	vec4(0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0), //Green
	vec4(0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0), //Blue

//for later triangle types example
var colors =
	vec4(1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0), //Red
	vec4(0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0), //Green
	vec4(0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0), //Blue
	vec4(1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0), //Yellow
	vec4(0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0), //Cyan
	vec4(1.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0), //Magenta

Then copy the colour data to a buffer, like this:

Place this below your position buffer code in init
    //*** Colour buffer **********************
    // Create a buffer for colour positions, make it active, and copy data to it
    var colorBuffer = gl.createBuffer();
    gl.bindBuffer( gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, colorBuffer );
    gl.bufferData( gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, flatten(colors), gl.STATIC_DRAW );
    //Enable the shader's vertex colour input and attach the active buffer
    var vColor = gl.getAttribLocation( program, "vColor" );
    gl.enableVertexAttribArray( vColor );
    gl.vertexAttribPointer( vColor, 4, gl.FLOAT, gl.FALSE, 0, 0 );

The process is very similar to the position buffer set up. I have highlighted the differences in red.

Setting Up 2D Rendering

Clearing the rendering window

The colour buffer and depth buffer are usually cleared each time you begin drawing to the OpenGL window. The values you use to clear with rarely change, so they are often set in the initialisation step with the clearColor and clearDepth functions:

    gl.clearColor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ); //clear colour is black
    gl.clearDepth(1.0); //Clear to maximum distance

The actual clearing happens just before you draw. In your main draw routine, you specify which buffers to clear with the gl.clear function:
    gl.clear(gl.COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | gl.DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

The Camera

In this lab you will be drawing 2D objects. When you draw in 2D (or you are doing 3D CAD work) you should use a special geometry transformation that does not cause shape or size distortion. This transformation is called orthographic projection. In the last lab we wanted a 3D effect with foreshortening so we used perspective projection. Perspective transformation makes it hard to place things precisely on the screen. Shapes are distorted toward the edges and corners, and their apparent size varies with their distance from the camera. With orthographic projection you can precisely control how coordinates map to the drawing area, and objects render the same way regardless of distance.

This week, we will use only simple normalized device coordinates - our drawing space will lie between (-1,-1) in the lower left corner and (1,1) in the upper right. If you are using 3D coordinates, then -1 is the nearest possible Z coordinate, and 1 is the farthest. Things do not appear smaller with distance. Next week, when you learn to do perspective() projection and other transformations, you will also see the textbook's ortho() functions which can give you control over how coordinates are mapped to the window when you don't do perspective.

Depth testing

In the last two sections we've discussed how to clear the depth buffer, and the default range of depth values. Perhaps you'd also like to know how to specify 3D vertices and do depth testing.

Without depth testing, objects appear on the screen in the order you draw them. If you want to draw something behind another thing you have already drawn, you need to turn on depth testing, supply depth values with your vertex coordinates, and clear the depth buffer each time you start drawing.

In more detail:
  1. Clear the depth buffer along with the colour buffer as described above.
  2. Turn on depth testing with enable like this:
    Place this code anywhere in your init:
  3. Supply a non-zero depth to the vertex shader by making sure that the vPosition attribute is a vec3 or vec4. Then make sure you adjust how it is copied to the gl_Position built-in output.
  4. Change your coordinate data arrays to base type vec3, then supply a depth, or z, value to each vertex in your data arrays. For example you could specify two overlapping triangles like this:
    var points=
       vec3( 0.0, 0.0,-0.5 ),
       vec3( 0.5, 0.0,-0.5 ),
       vec3( 0.5, 0.5,-0.5 ),
       vec3( 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 ),
       vec3( 0.0,-1.0, 0.0 ),
       vec3( 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 )
    var colors= 
       vec4( 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ), // Triangle 1 is red
       vec4( 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ), 
       vec4( 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ),
       vec4( 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 ), // Triangle 2 is cyan
       vec4( 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 ),
       vec4( 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 )
  5. Make sure you are set up to use a colour input attribute as discussed earlier.
  6. Make sure you are drawing the six points specified.
  7. Change the size component of the vertexAttribPointer call for your position buffer to match the points array. It was 2, it should be 3 now.

If everything works, the cyan triangle in this example appears behind the red, even though it is drawn second. In the default coordinate system, larger z values are farther away. With depth testing off, the cyan triangle would be in front of the red one.


Goals of this assignment:

Get comfortable drawing with vertex buffers, uniforms and shaders by:

For starters:

It is good to get a feeling for where you can put points on the scene.

The following instructions are meant to get you started from one of the template projects provided on the lab schedule. Your lab instructor will probably do a. through c. during the lab demo:

  1. Get the HTML and Javascript template code from lab 1 and put it in a Lab2 folder in your Lab directory structure. Name the files Lab2.html and Lab2.js
  2. Modify the shader in the project as described in the Setting Up a Shader Program section of the lab 2 notes.
  3. Add code to init as indicated by the following comments:
        //Explicitly set clear color to black or a colour you like
        //Load, compile and use a shader
        //Load the simple triangle position data near the top of the notes into a buffer
        //Bind the buffer to your shader's vPosition input
  4. Confirm that you can draw the triangle with the original shader code. Use the first drawArrays() command found in the notes, and place it in the render() function as described there.
  5. Add either a uniform or an array input to your vertex shader to allow you to change colours.
  6. Add these vertices to the end of your points array:
       vec2( 0.99, 0.99),
       vec2(-0.99, 0.99),
       vec2( 0.99,-0.99),
  7. Add this drawArrays() command to draw the four new points:
       gl.drawArrays(gl.LINE_LOOP, 3, 4); // Start at the fourth vertex, draw four vertices
  8. Colour the triangle and rectangle with the colours of your choice. Add glUniform*() commands, or set up and load a colours array as appropriate to accomplish this task.
  9. You may remove the drawArrays() command that draws the triangle. Please leave the rectangle border in place.
  10. Consult the marking scheme to see what else to do.

Marking scheme and details of assignment:

(18 marks total)

Samples of previous work. Your work will end up in the gallery, so pay attention to artistic impression.


What I want in zipped format:
  1. Your code + any supporting files (for instance, if you put custom functions or points arrays in separate .js files)
  2. An image of your final product
  3. BONUS: Add at least one extra useful uniform to your program. You could use such uniforms to adjust the position, size or rotation of objects you draw with draw commands. Try something. I like being surprised.
  4. BONUS: See if you can figure out how to perform Alpha Blending with WebGL to achieve transparency effects, like what you see in the glow of Mace Windu's lightsaber from the previous work gallery.