Related Stuff
Product Download Links Description
  Arduino Experimenter Kit (ARDX)
Printable PDF Version of ARDX Manual Very useful introduction to the Arduino. You may not have all the parts, but there are code samples and project ideas in there that you can make with the parts you have. You may have to tweak the resistor values. Use your 1000Ω resistor instead of the 560Ω and 2.2kΩ resistors and you'll do fine.

If you want to try all the experiments without sourcing the parts, you can buy the the kit without an Arduino from Solarbotics. You'll also get a great parts case and mount for your Arduino and breadboard.
Arduino IDE
(Arduino Software)

Official Arduino IDE Download Page

You can't Arduino without the IDE. Great software, lots of built in examples.
Processing
Official Processing Download Page
The easy to use Java based programming language that inspired the Arduino IDE and libraries. Its makes it easy to communicate with Arduino sketches. Many of the Arduino IDE's built in examples provide Processing sample code.
Fritzing

Official Fritzing Download Page

Frizing 0.6.3B was used to make circuit diagrams and breadboard layouts for the lab notes. Some custom parts were designed for the lab notes. These may be made available to you later in the semester.

You may be asked to use it to produce similar diagrams and layouts for assignments.